Perhaps the first suggestion that testosterone might be useful in aiding sporting performance came from the work of Oskar Zoth and Fritz Pregl in 1886. As an alternative to testicular transplantation, Zoth and Pregl undertook a study using testicular extracts. These two Austrian scientists aimed to determine whether the aqueous extracts could improve muscle strength and, thus, improve athletic performance. They injected themselves with a liquid extract from bull’s testicles and then measured the strength of their middle fingers throughout a series of exercises. Their paper, published in 1896, concluded that the extract had improved the strength and condition of their muscles. Moreover, they went on to suggest that further research be carried out within the athletic community for practical assessment of their initial results. The writer Paul de Kruif reported on the developments in the synthesis and therapeutic applications of testosterone. During the 1940s he commented on the potential of these substances to improve the athletic performance of baseball teams. However, these reports were essentially indications of the potential performance-enhancing abilities of testosterone and its derivatives. The first accurate and controlled studies into this aspect of sports doping were produced in the 1950s.
The American scientist Dr John Ziegler produced some of the most influential work into the effects of AS upon sporting performance. Indeed, Ziegler was responsible for the original synthesis of AS (Taylor, 1991; Goldman and Klatz, 1992; Yesalis et al., 1993a; Hoberman and Yesalis, 1995). In 1956 Ziegler attended the World Games, and at this competition
he learnt of the Russian athletes’ use of hormonal treatments for performance enhancement. On his return Ziegler reported his findings and, funded by the pharmaceutical company Ciba, went on to synthesize the first AS. He named this compound Dianabol.
Since the development of Dianabol an enormous range of AS has become available. Pharmaceutical companies have continued to research methods to dissociate the ‘desirable’ anabolic effects from the androgenic effects, but as yet they have had very limited success. Some of the AS available have lower androgenic components than others, but androgenic effects have not been entirely eliminated from any product (Haupt and Rovere, 1984).
The period of the 1960s and 1970s saw an increase in the number of people using AS, and also an increase in the range of AS commercially available (Taylor, 1991). However, the medical and sporting institutions were still viewing these substances with suspicion. In both America and Britain, research as to whether AS did improve athletic performance was conflicting ( Johnson and O’Shea, 1968; Freed et al., 1975; Hervey et al., 1976; Ryan, 1978). In 1975, the British Association of Sport and Medicine (BASM) announced that AS were not capable of producing an improvement in performance. The policy of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) was published in their 1977 annual report; this report stated that there was no conclusive scientific evidence to suggest that AS improve athletic performance.
In fact, it was only in the 1980s that it became accepted that, under specified circumstances, AS are capable of producing an improvement in sporting performance. The specific circumstances were that:
the athlete must have been undergoing an intensive weightlifting programme before starting the course of Anabolic Steroids;
the athlete must continue this intensive training programme throughout the course of Anabolic Steroids;
the athlete must consume a high protein diet.
It also recommended that changes in the strength of the athlete must be measured by the single repetition-maximal weight technique for the exercises in which the athlete trains (Haupt and Rovere, 1984).
After it had become widely accepted that AS could enhance sporting performance, the medical and sporting institutions were forced to change their public policies. The sporting institutions continued to maintain an anti-doping stance. They now had to find some way of deterring athletes from using drugs that were scientifically proven to enhance performance. To compound matters, there was already a significant lack of credibility between the sports medicine and the athletic communities due in no small part to the previous denial of the sport medical community as to the performance-enhancing properties of AS (Haupt and Rovere, 1984). Any research documenting the adverse effects of these drugs was likely to be viewed sceptically by athletes.
Anabolex Dianabol Dbol D bol Methandrostenolone Steroid